Basis for TECHNICAL ISSUES
The basis for the review of technical issues is the IAEA safety standards, which reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. They are issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series, which has three categories:
· Safety Fundamentals;
· Safety Requirements;
· Safety Guides.
The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, the applicable General Safety Requirements, with a graded approach to all facilities and activities, complemented by a set of Specific Safety Requirements relating to facilities and activities. The Safety Requirements are implemented through a corresponding set of general and specific Safety Guides.
The Safety Fundamentals SF-1 establishes the fundamental safety objective and principles of protection and safety and provides the basis for the safety requirements.
An integrated and consistent set of Safety Requirements establish the requirements that should be met to ensure the protection of people and the environment, both now and in the future. The requirements are governed by the objective and principles of the Safety Fundamentals. If the requirements are not met, measures should be taken to reach or restore the required level of safety. The format and style of the requirements facilitate their use for the establishment, in a harmonized manner, of a national regulatory framework. The safety requirements use ‘shall’ with statements of associated conditions to be met.
Safety Guides provide recommendations and guidance on how to comply with the safety requirements, indicating an international consensus that it is necessary to take the measures recommended (or equivalent alternative measures). The Safety Guides present international good practices, and increasingly reflect best practices, to help users striving to achieve high levels of safety. The recommendations provided in Safety Guides are expressed as ‘should’ statements.
Basis for CORE AREAS
IRRS core review areas address IAEA Safety Requirements set out in:
· GSR Part 1: Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety;
· GS-R-3: The Management System for Facilities and Activities Safety Requirements, and
· GS-R-2: Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (requirements related to regulatory aspects)
GSR Part 1 comprises 36 overarching requirements (hereafter R1 to R36), organized in the following manner:
· Responsibilities and functions of the government (R1-R13);
· Global nuclear safety regime (R14-R15);
· Responsibilities and functions of the regulatory body (R16-R36).
GSR Part 1 constitutes the backbone of the IRRS. As further explained further in the IRRS Guidelines, the various modules of the IRRS correspond to different parts and/or the various requirements of GSR Part1.
Basis for ADDITIONAL AREAS
Other IAEA Safety Requirements are used as appropriate, in order to cover the detailed scope of regulatory control for safety of nuclear installations and for radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety. These are further detailed in Appendix I of the IRRS Guidelines.
Basis for POLICY ISSUES
Documents and commitments made by the host country may provide useful information for reviewers evaluating the current functioning of the regulatory body and identifying policy issues. Such documents might include:
· The host country’s self-assessment and action plan;
· The host country’s Advance Reference Material (ARM);
· Relevant technical issues arising during the IRRS, etc.
Other material may generate policy issues and facilitate discussion of their potential impact on regulatory responsibilities, functions and activities. Such material includes IAEA publications on regulatory and safety conferences and other relevant international meetings and forums; reports on safety issues and trends; results from other IAEA review missions; INSAG Reports; insights from the analysis of operational experience feedback from the IAEA’s Incident Reporting System (IRS) and others.